chapter  14
Targeted Radiotherapy of Neuroblastoma
WithCornelis A. Hoefnagel
Pages 21

Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, occurring most frequently in early childhood. The tumor originates from the neural crest: the cells that form the sympathetic nervous system, called sympathogonia, migrate from the neural crest to the adrenal medulla, the paraganglion of Zuckerkandl, and a large number of paraganglia retroperitoneally along the aorta down into the pelvis. The pluripotential sympathogonia differentiate into ganglion, neurofibrous, and chromaffin cells, and tumors arising from these cells can be classified as neuroblastoma (sympathicoblastoma), ganglioneuroma, neurofibroma, and pheochromocytoma, respectively. Because of this development neuroblastoma has the potential ability to mature into ganglioneuroma, ganglioma and pheochromocytoma (1). Interacting with characteristic features of these neuroendocrine tumors, specific targeting of radiopharmaceuticals may be achieved via the metabolic route (MIBG), receptor binding (peptides), or the immunological route (antibodies).