Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemicals in Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and Hazelnut By-Products
Phytochemicals are defi ned as nonnutritive, naturally occurring, and biologically active plantderived chemicals that have health supporting, protective, and disease preventive properties. Several thousand phytochemicals (such as phenolics, carotenoids, allylic compounds, sterols, chlorophylls, indoles, saponins, gingerols, and terpenes, among others) have been reported in fruits, vegetables, nuts, medicinal plants, herbal remedies, fl owers, and red wines, among others [1-7]. Currently, there
is much interest in phytochemicals because of potential health benefi ts related to their substantial antioxidant and antiradical activities [3,8], anti-infl ammatory and antiaggregatory properties [9,10], anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects , and antiproliferative potential . Phytochemicals provide protection against harmful effects of free radicals and are known to reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, atherosclerosis, cataracts, osteoporosis, type-2 diabetes, infl ammation, ulcers, diabetes, endothelial function, insulin resistance, sudden death, and hypertension, among others [1,3,12-24].