chapter  1
10 Pages

Tree Nuts: Composition, Phytochemicals, and Health Effects: An Overview

Tree nuts are highly nutritious and provide macronutrients (fat, protein, and carbohydrate)[1,8], micronutrients (minerals and vitamins)[1], fat-soluble bioactives (monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFA], polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA], monoacylglycerols [MAG], diacylglycerols [DAG], triacylglycerols [TAG], phospholipids, sterol esters, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, phytostanols, squalene, terpenoids, sphingolipids, and essential oils, among others) [1,4-6,9-12] (Table 1.2), and phy-

tochemicals (phenolic acids, fl avonoids [fl avonols, fl avones, fl avanols or catechin, fl avanones, anthocyanidins, isofl avanoids], stilbenes, lignan, hyrolyzable tannins, condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins, carotenoids, alkaloids, coumestan, phytates, and phytoestrogens, among others) [1,8,13-20] (Figure 1.1).