chapter  17
ByJobst Conrad
Pages 8

If one asks once again for essential factors explaining environmental management development and success, one may, referring to corresponding literature cited in Chapter 2, distinguish the following systematic theoretical-analytical perspectives, which focus-on the micro-, meso-or macro-level-on different explanatory dimensions of environmental management: 1. Ecological problem structure and related social objectives (concerning the type

and severity of underlying environmental problems or the range of environmental goals: economic compensation, technical correction, technical prevention, sustainable ecological development);

2. Technical solutions of environmental problems (with regard to their feasibility and type: additive (end-of-pipe) technology, integrated technology, system technology; complexity and coupling modes of technologies applied);

3. Appropriate information (referring to environmental monitoring, information processing, information evaluation, measuring eco-performance, and the overall structure of the environmental information system);

4. Appropriate corporate organization and resources (regarding formal organization, informal organization, management systems and functions, degree of selforganization, available financial manpower, know-how resources; general inquiry and screening of company-internal influencing factors);

5. The economics of environmental management (concerning (changing) ecologyeconomy trade-offs, environmental protection where pollution prevention pays, environmentally oriented demand and ecological market chances and marketing, thereby induced ecological competition, corporate risk management and coping with (normal) accidents);

6. Company-external determinants (with regard to public pressure and environmental (pressure) groups, environmental policy and regulations, environmental conflict or cooperation with external actors, lack of social credibility and legitimacy, environmental ethics as cultural driving force);

7. System structures (in relation to the fundamental prerequisites of differentiated socio-functional systems dealt with by systems theory, structurally different development phases of (industrial) environmental protection and management, the time horizon of environmental management strategy);

8. Social actors (regarding the type of actors involved, the actor constellation and the respective pattern of problem perception as well as interest and power distribution; and the explanation of actors’ behaviour by rational choice and game theories);

9. Social learning and strategy (focusing on social processes and intentions such as (typical) innovation processes, organizational learning, corporate (environmental) strategy and its consistency, strategic environmental management portfolio (internal ecological strengths and weaknesses, external environmental chances and risks), multiple rationalities, actor identities and bifurcation points);

10. History and situation (referring to strict historical analysis and reconstruction or situational explanation, e.g. utilizing windows of opportunity or not).