chapter  7
20 Pages

- Measurement of Oil Content by Rapid Analytical Techniques

Since canola is sold for crushing, the oil content analysis should give an estimate of the amount of oil that could optimally be obtained by a crushing plant (crushing plant with solvent extraction). World trade is usually overseen by organizations to help buyers, sellers, producers, exporters, importers and users to conduct their business. The Federation of Oils, Seeds and Fats Associations (FOSFA, http://www. fosfa.org/) is an international organization involved exclusively with the international trade of oilseeds, oils and fats. It is considered that FOSFA contracts/ standards manage about 85% of the international trade of oilseeds, oils and fats. FOSFA is using standards issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

7.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 125 7.2 Pulse NMR ................................................................................................... 127 7.3 NIR Analysis ................................................................................................ 130

7.3.1 Oil and Protein Measurements ......................................................... 136 7.3.2 Chlorophyll Measurement ................................................................ 138 7.3.3 α-Linolenic Acid Measurement ........................................................ 139

Acknowledgements ................................................................................................ 140 References .............................................................................................................. 141

to regulate the oilseed trade. The mandatory analytical method specied by FOSFA (2005) as the reference method to determine oil content is the ISO 659: 2009 method (1998). The America Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS, http://www.aocs.org) also developed a method (AOCS, Am 2-93: 2009) to analyse the oilseed oil content. Both the AOCS Am 2-93 method (2009) and the ISO 659-2009 method have been harmonized, meaning that they are equivalent methods, with the same scope and the same principle. They are solvent extraction methods with several stages of grinding and extraction; their scope is to produce an exhaustive extraction of neutral lipids. Hexane or petroleum ether could be used as the solvent for both methods. The extracted component is then estimated gravimetrically, and it is dened as crude fat or oil content. The multiple (triplicate) extractions with grinding and regrinding make the method costly due to analyst time, solvent consumption and disposal. Despite the length of the method, for the trade, it is the only recognized reference method capable of an exhaustive extraction of all nonpolar lipids. It takes 48-72 h to obtain results with this type of extraction method.