Intensifi cation by Means of Formulation
Formulation is often regarded as “knowledge and practical operations necessary for mixing, associating or formatting ingredients of natural or synthetic origin, often mutually incompatible, in order to obtain a commercial product characterized by its function use” (Aubry and Schorsch 1999). Some mixtures are formed spontaneously at the molecular level (mixture of two miscible liquids, for example). Others do not spontaneously and require an input of energy, usually in mechanical form (agitation), which is the case, for example, for unstable emulsions. Generally, small parts of one phase are observed, dispersed in another phase (continuous one). The associated phases can be solids, liquids or gases (Table 1).