chapter  20
44 Pages

- Bridge Engineering in China

ByQuan Qin, Gang Mei, Gongyi Xu

China has a population of 1.43 billion as of 2013, a total area of 9.641 million km2, including 6,530 sea islands with area of 80,000 km2, and coastlines of 14,500 km. China ranges from mostly plateaus and mountains in the west to lower lands in the east. In the west, the north has a great alluvial plain, and the south has a vast calcareous table land traversed by hill ranges of moderate elevation, and the Himalayas, containing Earth’s highest point, Mount Qomolangma. ƒe northwest also has high plateaus with more arid desert landscapes such as the Takla-Makan and the Gobi Desert. In the east, along the shores of the

20.1 Introduction ......................................................................................907 20.2 Design .................................................................................................917

Yellow Sea and the East China Sea there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains. On the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, grasslands can be seen. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges. In the central-east are the deltas of China’s two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. The principal rivers flow from west to east, including the Yangtze (central), Yellow River (north-central), and Heilong River (northeast), and sometimes toward the south (including the Pearl River), with most Chinese rivers emptying into the Pacific Ocean. Plateaus, mountains, and hill ranges account for 66% of China’s area, and 34% of the area are plains. Figure 20.1 shows a map of China.