chapter  22
Yessotoxins and Pectenotoxins
WithAmparo Alfonso, Araceli Tobío, M. Carmen Louzao
Pages 20

Yessotoxin (YTX) and its analogs are a group of more than 100 polyether compounds produced by several species of dinoflagellates genera Gonyaulax, Protoceratium, and Lingulodinium and originally isolated from Patinopecten yessoensis. Some effect of YTX over protein kinase C translocation was reported in primary cortical neurons. YTXs often coexist with diarrhetic Shellfish toxins (DSP) but their effects are different. DSP toxins are specific and potent inhibitors of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases Protein Phosphatase (PP) and PP2A. The metabolism of toxins that have accumulated in fish and Shellfish is considered a detoxification process, as happens with pectenotoxins in the Japanese scallop P. yessoensis. Actin is one of the most abundant and common cytoskeletal proteins involved in many cellular processes such as cell growth, motility, signaling, and maintenance of cell shape. palytoxin-2 through its binding to actin can modify the cytoskeleton by promoting actin depolymerization in hepatocytes, intestinal cells, and neuroblastoma cells.