A range of monitoring approaches has been adopted in many parts of the world to manage Shellfish toxicity and to comply with local legislative requirements. The incidence of harmful algal blooms (HAB) has been increasing in terms of both frequency and geographic distribution. The pathway to human illness from the HABs is usually indirect and involves ingestion of fish or Shellfish that have in turn acquired toxins through feeding on the toxic microalgae. Due to the variety of toxins that can potentially occur in Shellfish, attention must be paid to developing efficient initiatives to detect, monitor, and share information on marine biotoxins, in order to limit health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated Shellfish. The management plan should detail and document how, who, where, and when Shellfish and phytoplankton samples are to be collected, and delivered to the laboratories. The design of an appropriate national program must primarily address consumer safety, using the principals of risk assessment and management.