chapter  10
Technology Transfer and Nanomedicine with Special Reference to Sweden
ByClaes Post
Pages 26

Excellent academic research has always been the base for in-

novation, patenting, entrepreneurship, and the establishment of

new enterprises. This was the case for many companies around

the world, like the Swedish pharmaceutical companies Astra and

Pharmacia that were started during the early 1900s. Technology

transfer during those years was performed mostly through direct

research collaborations between academic scientists and compa-

nies, such as the Pharmacia collaboration between Professor Nanna

Svartz and Salazopyrin as well as the collaboration with the Nobel

Laureate Arne Tiselius, who was instrumental for various products

based on dextran. The StockholmUniversity professor Nils Lo¨fgren’s

novel local anesthetic substance lidocaine was key to establishing

Astra as the leading company in the field of local anesthesia.

Today, technology transfer offices (TTOs) have been established at

universities to handle intellectual property in the academic setting.

This is performed by activities to scout, identify, and develop

academic projects with commercial potential. The legal framework

varies from country to country. In most countries, intellectual

property rights (IPRs) are handled by TTOs at universities or similar

institutions, but Sweden is an exception. Swedish scientists own

their inventions and can freely choose how to handle IPRs related

to their academic research.