chapter  28
32 Pages

Biosensors for the Control of Biochemical Parameters in the Diagnostics of Diseases

ByNickolaj F. Starodub

Clinical biochemistry as part of clinical laboratory diagnostics is based on the qualitative and quantitative determination of a number of biochemical parameters in biological uids. Its eld of activities includes examining the nature of the changes in the number of biochemical quantities at a number of physiological and pathological conditions, as well as the development of methods for their determination. Biosensors are among the recent widespread methods based on modern instrumental electronic devices that are well known. Today, these devices are used in clinical diagnostics to determine such important parameters of the body as glucose, cholesterol, certain immune components, urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, etc. The diagnosis of diabetes to determine the level of glucose in the body with a glucose biosensor is in common practice. It is developed and commercially available in a number of countries as different types of blood glucose meters (Wang, 2001; Eun-Hyung Yoo and Soo-Youn Lee, 2010; Campetelli et al., 2011). However, clinical practice in the diagnosis, assessment of the disease, and its current treatment needs rapid determination of the level of anti-insulin antibodies. Existing analytical devices based on immunochemical analysis provide such an analysis, but it takes a long time to run, it is not cheap, and is quite difcult to be performed directly in the clinic and even more so at the patient’s bedside. This can only be achieved in the development of analytical approaches based on the principles of biosensors. In this direction, extensive

28.3.4 Denition of Induced VL Antibodies in the Serum of Milk ... 762 28.3.5 Immune Biosensors Based on Nanostructures for the

Diagnostics of BVL ........................................................................ 763 28.3.5.1 General Abilities of sNPS ............................................... 763 28.3.5.2 Obtaining sNPS by Chemical Etching ......................... 763 28.3.5.3 Photoconductivity of sNPS ............................................ 765 28.3.5.4 Some Materials and Chemicals for Immune

Chemical Analysis .......................................................... 766 28.3.5.5 Registration of the Specic Immune Complex

by the Determination of sPNS Photoconductivity ..... 767 28.3.5.6 Registration of the Specic Immune Complex by

the PhL of the sPNS ........................................................ 767 28.3.5.7 Determination of the Retroviral Specic Ab in

the Blood of the ILL Cow by the Measurement of sPNS Photoconductivity................................................. 768

28.3.5.8 Determination of the Retroviral Specic Ab in the Blood of the Ill Cow by the Method of PhL of sPNS .......769