chapter  4
26 Pages

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering–Based Biosensors

ByIlya N. Kurochkin, Andrey K. Sarychev, Ilya A. Ruzhikov, Igor A. Budashov, Sergey S. Maklakov, Sergey O. Boyarintsev, and Andrey N. Lagarkov

Ilya N. Kurochkin, Andrey K. Sarychev, Ilya A. Ruzhikov, Igor A. Budashov, Sergey S. Maklakov, Sergey O. Boyarintsev, and Andrey N. Lagarkov

CONTENTS

4.1 Raman Scattering and SERS ....................................................................... 98 4.1.1 SERS ................................................................................................. 100

4.2 SERS Biosensor Systems for Biomedical Application (Biosensing) ...... 102 4.2.1 Small-Molecule SERS Biosensing ................................................ 103 4.2.2 DNA/Aptamer SERS Biosensing ................................................. 104

4.2.2.1 Direct Detection Format ................................................. 104 4.2.2.2 SERS Tag Format ............................................................. 105

4.2.3 Protein/Enzyme/Peptide/Antibody SERS Biosensing ............ 105 4.2.3.1 Direct Detection Format ................................................. 105 4.2.3.2 SERS Tag Format ............................................................. 106

4.2.4 Cellular and in vivo Sensing ......................................................... 107 4.2.4.1 Direct Detection Format ................................................. 107 4.2.4.2 SERS Tag Format ............................................................. 108

4.3 SERS-Active Substrates: Types and Preparation Techniques .............. 109 4.3.1 Single-Layer Structures ................................................................. 109 4.3.2 Multilayer Structures .................................................................... 110 4.3.3 Techniques of Preparation of SERS-Active Structures ............. 110 4.3.4 Features of Technological Processes for SERS-Active

Substrates Manufacturing ............................................................ 111 4.4 Giant Enhancement of Raman Scattering in the Proled

Dielectric Film ............................................................................................ 112 4.4.1 Basic Equations and Computer Simulations .............................. 115

4.4.1.1 Equations .......................................................................... 116 4.4.2 Optical Properties of Rough Dielectric Film.............................. 116 4.4.3 Enhancement of the Raman Scattering ...................................... 117

References ............................................................................................................. 119

Giant Raman scattering in the metal nanostructures that is known as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was discovered in the last quarter of the twentieth century. It might be the most important discovery in optics at the end of the century. SERS effect is observed when the investigated substance is deposited onto metal nanoparticles (NPs), clusters of the particles, rough metal surfaces (e.g., chemical etching electrodes), and semicontinuous metal lms. SERS has witnessed many successes over the past three decades, owing particularly to its simplicity of use as well as its highly multiplexing capability in biomedical investigations [1]. SERS has emerged as a promising nanosensing technique for in vivo diagnostics. This chapter provides an overview of SERS and its applicability in the eld of biosensing.