chapter  21
32 Pages

◾ Can Virolution Help Us Understand Recent Human Evolution?

ByLUIS P. VILLARREAL

Why do addiction circuits exist in animal brains? Psychological pain has always presented a diculty for evolutionary biology. In 1978, Panksepp hypothesized that social attachments functioned by piggybacking onto the physical pain system and did so through opioidmediated processes. He noted the parallels between attachment processes and addiction.