For the purposes of this chapter, cranial, spinal, and peripheral nerves will be encompassed by the designation peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves give rise to tumors with a rich variety of histologic features unique among those of the nervous system. The tumors arise from or replicate intrinsic cells of the nerve sheath, most often the Schwann cell, and have some characteristics of soft tissue tumors. This chapter provides an assessment of current knowledge concerning these tumors, which in the last two decades has been greatly expanded by new observations. Relevant literature is critically evaluated.