- Multimodal Interfaces
Multimodal systems process two or more combined user input modes-such as speech, pen, touch, manual gestures, gaze, and head and body movements-in a coordinated manner with multimedia system output. This class of systems represents a new direction for computing, and a paradigm shift away from conventional Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointer interfaces. Since the appearance of Bolt’s (1980) “Put That There” demonstration system, which processed speech in parallel with touch pad pointing, a variety of new multimodal systems has emerged. This new class of interfaces aims to recognize naturally occurring forms of human language and behavior, which incorporate at least one recognition-based technology (e.g., speech, pen, vision). The development of novel multimodal systems has been enabled by the myriad input and output technologies currently becoming available, including new devices and improvements in recognition-based technologies. This chapter will review the main types of multimodal interfaces, their advantages and cognitive science underpinnings, primary features and architectural characteristics, and general research in the želd of multimodal interaction and interface design.