chapter  8
36 Pages

- Visual Displays

Since the dawn of humankind, people have been inventing and building tools to make life easier and more comfortable. One of mankind’s žrst tools with a visual display was the sundial, built more than 3000 years ago in Babylon. Due to

its basic physical principle though, one of its signižcant disadvantages was that it could not show the time during the night or when the weather was cloudy. Moreover, the žrst sundials were in public places, so people had to make the effort to go there to check the time. Later developments of clocks (also in public places) eliminated the disadvantages

8.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 157 8.2 Basic Principles and Concepts ......................................................................................................................................... 158

8.2.1 Image Generation ................................................................................................................................................ 158 8.2.2 Electronic Information Displays .......................................................................................................................... 158 8.2.3 Display Segmentation .......................................................................................................................................... 158 8.2.4 Display Dimensionality ....................................................................................................................................... 159 8.2.5 Human-Related Display Functionality ................................................................................................................ 159

8.3 Quality Criteria .................................................................................................................................................................161 8.3.1 Colors ....................................................................................................................................................................161 8.3.2 Brightness ............................................................................................................................................................ 163 8.3.3 Contrast and Gray Scales ..................................................................................................................................... 163 8.3.4 Glare and Light Re¥ection ................................................................................................................................... 164 8.3.5 Resolution ............................................................................................................................................................ 165 8.3.6 Refresh Rate and Response Times ...................................................................................................................... 166 8.3.7 Depth in 3D Displays ........................................................................................................................................... 166

8.4 Technologies .................................................................................................................................................................... 167 8.4.1 Taxonomy of Electronic Information Display Technologies ............................................................................... 167

8.4.1.1 Direct-View Displays ............................................................................................................................ 167 8.4.1.2 Projection Displays ............................................................................................................................... 167 8.4.1.3 Offscreen Display Systems ................................................................................................................... 168

8.4.2 Cathode Ray Tube ................................................................................................................................................ 168 8.4.3 Liquid Crystal Displays ....................................................................................................................................... 168 8.4.4 Plasma Displays ....................................................................................................................................................170 8.4.5 Electroluminescent Displays ................................................................................................................................171 8.4.6 Cathodoluminescent Displays ............................................................................................................................. 172 8.4.7 Laser Displays ...................................................................................................................................................... 172 8.4.8 Other Nonemissive Displays .................................................................................................................................173 8.4.9 Touch Sensitive Displays ......................................................................................................................................174 8.4.10 3D Displays ...........................................................................................................................................................175

8.5 Visual Performance ..........................................................................................................................................................176 8.5.1 Task Demands ...................................................................................................................................................... 177 8.5.2 Measures Used for Evaluation ............................................................................................................................. 177 8.5.3 Effects of Specižc Quality Criteria on Visual Performance ................................................................................178 8.5.4 Comparison of Display Types .............................................................................................................................. 180

8.6 Standards, Regulations, and Seals of Approval ............................................................................................................... 182 8.7 Displays for Selected Applications .................................................................................................................................. 183