chapter  6
30 Pages

Field Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure among Athletes

ByNuala M. Byrne, Sarah P. Shultz, Andrew P. Hills

A large number of physical activity measures are currently utilized in the field setting to profile activity in terms of amount and type of movement performed, and many of these tools are also employed to predict energy expenditure. Physical activity is a multi-faceted construct, and although there are numerous techniques for assessment there is no “gold standard” measurement method.1 In contrast, energy expenditure, which is a biological variable reflecting the sum of internal heat produced by external work, can be measured using well-accepted gold-standard methods. It is

6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 183 6.2 Definitions..................................................................................................... 185 6.3 Methods of Assessing Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure .............. 187

6.3.1 Objective Measures........................................................................... 187 6.3.1.1 The Doubly-Labeled Water (DLW) Technique ................. 187 6.3.1.2 Heart Rate Monitoring ....................................................... 190 6.3.1.3 Pedometers ......................................................................... 191 6.3.1.4 Accelerometers................................................................... 193 6.3.1.5 Combined Approaches and New Devices .......................... 198

6.3.2 Subjective Approaches ...................................................................... 199 6.3.2.1 Direct Observation .............................................................200 6.3.2.2 Physical Activity Records or Diaries ................................. 201 6.3.2.3 Physical Activity Questionnaires ....................................... 201 6.3.2.4 Self-Report Physical Activity Questionnaires ...................203