Molecular Aspects of Physical Performance and Nutritional Assessment
From the dawn of history, athletes paved the road for humanity to enhance human physical performance. Through improved and rigorous training methods, controlled surroundings, and precisely measured food intakes, they have attained the highest possible levels of human achievability. Traits are affected by genes as well as by environmental factors. Variations in any trait/phenotype (athleticism among them) are expressed as the result of genotype by environmental interactions (G × E). Historically, most of the performance-enhancing methods targeted environmental factors, since controlling the genetic variability was not an option within the reach at that time.