chapter  14
Nipple–areola complex reconstruction
ByMatthew E. Hiro, Deniz Dayicioglu
Pages 16

Surgical creation of a nipple and areola represents the fi nal step in breast reconstruction. After creation of a breast mound using autologous tissue fl ap techniques, expander/ implant techniques, or a combination of both, adding a surgically created nipple and areola completes the reconstruction, transforming the mound into an actual breast. When done correctly with appropriate preoperative planning and design, nipple and areola complex reconstruction can lead to higher patient satisfaction rates and improved outcomes.