chapter  8
30 Pages

- Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics

WithStephen B. Londerville, Wes Bussman

Ancient civilizations were able to solve uid mechanic pro blems that enabled them to build boats, ships, canals, irrigation systems, bridges, and water lifting machines.1

These advances were brought about without the aid of any mathematical analysis of uid mechanics, but through trial and error and everyday life experiences. Today, uid dynamics is one of the most important areas of engineering science. Over the last 100  years, research into the science of uid dynamics has grown

Stephen B. Londerville and Wes Bussman

CONTENTS

8.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................... 153 8.2 Properties of Fluids ...................................................................................................................................................... 154

8.2.1 Density ............................................................................................................................................................... 154 8.2.2 Specic Heat ...................................................................................................................................................... 154 8.2.3 Specic Weight .................................................................................................................................................. 154 8.2.4 Viscosity ............................................................................................................................................................. 155

8.2.4.1 Absolute Viscosity .............................................................................................................................. 155 8.2.4.2 Kinematic Viscosity ........................................................................................................................... 155

8.3 Hydrostatics ................................................................................................................................................................... 156 8.3.1 Pressure .............................................................................................................................................................. 156 8.3.2 Absolute and Gage Pressure ........................................................................................................................... 157 8.3.3 Pressure Measurement ..................................................................................................................................... 157

8.3.3.1 Manometers ........................................................................................................................................ 157 8.3.3.2 Bourdon-Tube Gage ........................................................................................................................... 158

8.4 Fluid Flow ...................................................................................................................................................................... 158 8.5 Euler’s Equation ............................................................................................................................................................ 160 8.6 Bernoulli Equation .........................................................................................................................................................161