chapter  8
Botulinum toxin type A treatment for Raynaud’s phenomenon and other novel dermatologic therapeutic applications
ByIrèn Kossintseva, Benjamin Barankin, Kevin C. Smith
Pages 11

PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BoNTA FOR RAYNAUD’S PHENOMENON Autonomic: Vasodilator and Vasoconstrictor In addition to the widely recognized inhibitory effects on the release of acetylcholine (Ach) from neurons innervating striated muscle and sweat glands, BoNTA has been shown to produce a neuromodulating effect on autonomic nerves ( 8 ). Cutaneous vasoconstriction and vasodilation are regulated by modulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuronal inputs and the complex actions of released ACh, NE, peptides like NPY, and small molecules such as nitric oxide on vascular smooth muscle.