chapter  15
30 Pages

Energy Savings for Mobile Communication Networks through Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management

Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 15.3 Performance Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

15.3.1 Power Saving by Dynamically Powering Down Radio Network Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 15.3.1.1 Cellular - Cellular Offloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 15.3.1.2 Cellular - Wi-Fi Offloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 15.3.1.3 Cellular - White-Fi Offloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423

Fundamentals,

15.3.2 Power Saving by Propagation Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 15.3.3 Power Saving by Channel Bandwidth Increase or Better

Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 15.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428

Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Author Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

The cellular industry has seen tremendous growth over the past few years. Information and communication technology (ICT) usage has increased at an exponential rate worldwide with approximately 5.6 billion users in 2010, and the data volumes growing by an order of magnitude every 5 years. Of this, mobile communications use has rocketed from 12% of all worldwide inhabitants subscribing to a service in the year 2000, to 78% in 2010 [1].To meet these growing traffic demands, operators have to deploy more base stations per area for higher capacity. As per one survey, every year 120,000 new base stations are deployed worldwide [2].