The most common genitourinary cancers (excluding the gynecologic malignancies discussed in other chapters) are prostate, urothelial, renal, and testicular cancers, in decreasing order of frequency of occurrence as well as deaths. This group of cancers is also known as ‘‘urologic cancers.’’ Prostate and testicular cancers (of which the vast majority are germ cell tumors) are restricted to men. Germ cell tumors (testicular typically in men) do rarely develop in women, however, and are typically of ovarian origin, but may be extragonadal in either sex. The common genitourinary cancers described above are most frequently found in older populations with the exception of testicular cancer, which typically occurs in young men. Prostate cancer is discussed elsewhere in this textbook; hence this chapter will be devoted mainly to urothelial and renal cancers with a brief account of pertinent issues in testicular tumors.