Blood-Borne Viruses in Clinical and Diagnostic Virology
Antiviral treatment regimens for both human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus were introduced and algorithms to select and monitor patients became part of disease and patient management. Additional amplification assays were developed in clinical virology laboratories and technological changes from manual methods to automation were introduced. Epstein–Barr virus infects more than 90% of humans and remains persistent for life in its host. Primary infection occurs predominantly in early childhood and is often asymptomatic or with non-specific symptoms. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes mostly mild or asymptomatic disease in immuno-competent persons. In contrast, in an immuno-compromised host CMV may lead to such life-threatening organ diseases as CMV pneumonitis, gastrointestinal disease and encephalitis. Adenoviruses are pathogens that may cause a variety of clinical diseases, including upper respiratory infections, enteritis, cystitis and conjunctivitis or may lead only to asymptomatic infections. Most frequently severe AdV disease is observed in bone marrow recipients.