chapter  7
DNA Sequencing for Genome Analysis
ByJeffrey P. Tomkins, Todd C. Wood, Dorrie Main
Pages 20

Introduction........................................................................................................... 157 EST Sequencing ....................................................................................................158 Development of Sequence-Ready Genomic Frameworks ....................................159 Whole-Genome Sequencing ..................................................................................163 Conclusion .............................................................................................................172 References..............................................................................................................173

Genome analysis has developed over time through the various fields of genetics, cytogenetics, biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. Each of these disciplines has contributed to our understanding of the nature of inheritance and how genes contribute toward an organism’s phenotype. We may briefly define a genome as the complete set of DNA instructions for a given organism, organized into chromosomal units and containing the genes which code for the organism’s traits. As a result, historically separate fields of biological study find union within the arena of genomics. Deciphering the genetic code or precise order of nucleotides represents one of the most fundamental steps in genomic analysis. Genome sequencing in its various forms serves as a foundation for analyses of transcription, gene regulation, chromosome structure, genetic pathologies, biochemical pathways, and evolution.