chapter  12
20 Pages

Secure Localization in Sensor Networks

ByKarthikeyan Ravichandran, Krishna M. Sivalingam

Contents 12.1 Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 12.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 12.3 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

12.3.1 Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 12.3.2 Attacks on Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

12.3.2.1 Distance Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 12.3.2.2 Wormhole Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 12.3.2.3 Replay Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 12.3.2.4 Sybil Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

12.4 Sensor Network Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 12.5 Secure Localization Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

12.5.1 Verifiable Multilateration Based on Distance Bounding. . . 299 12.5.2 Secure Range Independent Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 12.5.3 Statistical Filtering of Malicious Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 12.5.4 Range-Based Voting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 12.5.5 Location Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 12.5.6 Comparison of Existing Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

12.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

12.1 Abstract In this chapter we present a survey of “secure localization” systems for wireless sensor networks. Location information is an important component of sensor data in many wireless sensor networks. However, much of the earlier work in this area did not consider security aspects. Recently, research on location estimation systems that deal with a hostile environment has attracted much attention. We present a comprehensive survey of the several proposed secure localization techniques. We provide a taxonomy of the schemes, along with the important details of each scheme. We also present a comparison study of the main characteristics of these schemes.