chapter  3
Antennas and Channel Modeling in Millimeter-Wave Wireless PAN, LAN, and MAN
ByShao-Qiu Xiao, Jijun Yao, Bing-Zhong Wang, Jianpeng Wang, Huilai Liu
Pages 38

Contents 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 3.2 Basic Principles for Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 3.3 Types of Antennas in Millimeter-Wave WPAN,

WLAN and WMAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 3.3.1 Aperture Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 3.3.2 Lens Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 3.3.3 Leaky-Wave Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 3.3.4 Surface Wave Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 3.3.5 Reflector Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 3.3.6 Planar Integrated Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

3.4 Channel Modeling for Millimeter-Wave Propagation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 3.4.1 Basic Propagation Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 3.4.2 Channel Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

3.4.2.1 The Traditional Channel Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 3.4.2.2 The TR Channel for UWB Communications. . . . . . . 114

3.5 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

3.1 Introduction In the future mobile communication networks, there are four types of access networks, namely, wireless wide area cellular (WWAC), wireless personal area network (WPAN), wireless local area network (WLAN), and wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN). WWAC is developed for communicating in a large or global area. WPAN, WLAN, and WMAN are proposed to realize communications in a smaller area [1,2]. Some special requirements, such as high data rate, large communication capacity, limited communication area, and high angular resolution communication, are required in emerging WPAN, WLAN, and WMAN. Millimeter waves are capable of providing these desirable performances due to their unique characteristics; i.e., wide-spectrum bandwidth, short wavelength, and large air propagation loss. Therefore, millimeter waves are important candidates for future WPAN, WLAN, and WMAN [1-10].