chapter  14
26 Pages

Biomechanics of Fitness Index: Optimal Walking and Jogging Modes, and Hip Joint Assessment

WithDhanjoo N. Ghista, Jor Huat Ong, Geok Hian Lim

CONTENTS 14.1 Scope ......................................................................................................... 399 14.2 Development of a Cardiac Fitness Index (Based On Exercise

and Postexercise Heart Rate Data)....................................................... 400 14.2.1 Fitness Assessment Model ...................................................... 400 14.2.2 Application to Fitness Evaluation.......................................... 402 14.2.3 Affirmation of Our Indices...................................................... 402

14.3 Optimal Walking Modality ................................................................... 403 14.3.1 Stride Frequency (SF) Analysis .............................................. 404 14.3.2 Stride Length (SL) Analysis .................................................... 406

14.4 Optimal Jogging Frequency .................................................................. 408 14.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 408 14.4.2 Methodology.............................................................................. 409 14.4.3 Analysis of Natural Frequency of the Lower Limb

(Based On Its Double-Compound Pendulum Model)........ 410 14.4.4 Results and Remarks................................................................ 413

14.5 Evaluation of the Hip Joint Characteristics........................................ 414 14.5.1 Analysis of Free Damped Oscillatory Motion

of the Free-Swinging Leg ........................................................ 414 14.5.2 Application ................................................................................ 421

References ........................................................................................................... 424

This chapter defines a fitness index based on a patient’s heart rate (HR) response to physical exertion. This is useful in cardiac clinics to assess a patient’s cardiac fitness status, as a preventive care measure or to rule out

cardiac dysfunction before subjecting the patient to further tests. Next, we have developed the analysis for the optimalwalkingmodality of a person as a determinant of the stride length and frequency of the individual. In the case of jogging, the optimal jogging frequency is postulated to correspond with the natural oscillation frequency of the leg. Lastly, an assessment of the hip joint status is carried out, based on a simple-compound leg pendulum analysis.