Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
This chapter describes the state of the art in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), with an emphasis on materials, interfacial reactions, and cell configurations. Interconnection materials are necessary to combine single cells to form stacks by connecting the cathode material of one cell to the anode material of the adjacent one. The development programs for the fabrication of SOFC modules started using a relatively thick electrolyte, the cell being arranged in a “bell and spigot” tubular design. In the Westinghouse tubular technology, the arrangement of single cells in stacks is made by connecting cells with ductile nickel felt pads which are in permanent contact with the reducing fuel atmosphere. To transfer the performance characteristics exhibited by single cells, numerous organizations are investigating a wide range of planar SOFC configurations focusing on different interconnect designs and fabrication processes.