Molecular Computing and Processing Platforms
PPs), novel hardware solutions must be developed. Molecular electronics and new concepts should be utilized, including nanotechnology. Although progress in various applications of nanotechnology is being announced, many of those declarations have been largely acquired from well-known theories and accomplished technologies of material science, biology, chemistry, and other areas established in olden times and utilized for centuries. Atoms and atomic structures were envisioned by Leucippus of Miletus and Democritus around 440
, and the basic atomic theory was developed by John Dalton in 1803. The Periodic Table of Elements was established by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, and the electron was discovered by Joseph Thomson in 1897. The composition of atoms was discovered by Ernest Rutherford in 1910 using the experiments conducted under his direction by Ernest Marsden in the scattering of
-particles. The quantum theory was largely developed by Niels Bohr, Louis de Broglie, Werner Heisenberg, Max Planck, and other scientists at the beginning of the 20th century. Those developments were taken forward by Erwin Schrödinger in 1926. For many decades, comprehensive editions of chemistry and physics handbooks coherently reported thousands of organic and inorganic compounds, molecules, ring systems, purines, pyrimidines, nucleotides, oligonucleotides, organic magnets, organic polymers, atomic complexes, and molecules with dimensionality of the order of 1 nm. In the last 50 years, meaningful methods have been developed and commercially deployed to synthesize a great variety of nucleotides and oligonucleotides with various linkers and spacers, bioconjugated molecular aggregates, modiﬁed nucleosides, and other inorganic, organic, and biomolecules. The above-mentioned fundamental, applied, experimental, and technological accomplishments have provided essential foundations for many areas including biochemistry, chemistry, physics, electronics, etc.