chapter  17
20 Pages

Intrauterine Devices: Infections and Biofilms

WithBen M. J. Pereira, Vikas Pruthi

CONTENTS 17.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 395 17.2 Contraceptive Options for Women and Preference for IUDs

among Asian Women........................................................................... 396 17.3 Types of IUDs........................................................................................ 397 17.4 Mechanism of Action ........................................................................... 398 17.5 Problems Associated with IUD Usage with Special Reference

to Microbial Infections ......................................................................... 399 17.6 Mode and Mechanism of Infection and Biofilm Formation

on IUDs................................................................................................... 400 17.7 Problems Associated with Eradication of Biofilms......................... 404 17.8 IUDs and Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases .......................................... 405 17.9 Precautionary and Remedial Measures ............................................ 406 17.10 Concluding Remarks............................................................................ 407 Acknowledgments ............................................................................................. 408 References ........................................................................................................... 408

Regulation of fertility and family planning is now considered a human right that is basic to human dignity. To facilitate this, science and technology has made rapid strides and it is now possible for couples to choose from a variety of contraceptive methods. These include injectables, implants, female and male sterilization, intrauterine devices (IUDs), oral contraceptives, condoms, spermicides, diaphragms, and cervical caps. However, it is apparent that the development of contraceptive methods is greatly biased toward women since it is easier to target a single egg released cyclically, in a span of one month, than to deal with millions of sperm released at each ejaculation. In western countries, new generations of contraceptives like nasal sprays and dermal patches have gained popularity in preventing

unwanted pregnancies. There is no doubt that men and women would like to use a method of their choice which is effective and gives them satisfaction, while safeguarding against avoidable, negative health effects. Nevertheless, in stable relationships, it is the woman who generally volunteers or is forced to take the responsibility to adopt appropriate measures to deal with conception or contraception. Today, the mind-set of an average Asian couple is to delay the first child, space the second, and stop the third.