chapter  19
12 Pages

Prebiotics and Infant Nutrition

ByYvan Vandenplas, Thierry Devreker, Silvia Salvatore, Bruno Hauser

CONTENTS Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Bifidobacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Cow’s Milk Formula Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Oligosaccharides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Formula with Oligosaccharides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Oligosaccharides in Solid Food in Older Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

Breastfeeding is the gold standard for infant nutrition. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) comprise part of the functional ingredients of humanmilk. As for most of the components of mother’s milk, the quantity of HMOs differs betweenmothers, and also during lactation and breastfeeding. Mother’s milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides on the fourth day of lactation (20 g/L). On day 30, a decrease occurs of 20%, and on day 120, a further decrease of 40% is observed. One liter of mature human milk contains approximately 5-10 g unbound oligosaccharides, andmore than 130 different HMOs have been identified. Both their high amount and structural diversity are unique to humans [1,2]. Significant amounts of HMOs are fermented in the colon while they are as well recovered in the feces of breast-fed babies. HMOs have been recognized, since 1954, as a “bifidus factor.” The first description of bifidobacteria as an essential part of gut flora in breast-fed infants dates back to 1899. HMOs play an important role, as prebiotic soluble dietary fibers with a prebiotic effect in the postnatal development of the intestinal flora [3].