Nuclear Coal Gasication
Germany has played in the past a leading role in the development of the essential coalreŒning processes. Extensive studies included coal gasiŒcation, liquefaction, and advanced combustion systems aiming at the generation of substitute natural gas (SNG), liquid hydrocarbons, and other raw materials for the chemical industries. Numerous coal gasiŒcation projects were launched to investigate on pilot plant scale various methods and reactor types, and optimize operational conditions. With the Œrst oil crisis at the beginning of the 1970s, comprehensive research and development (R&D) activities were conducted in Germany as a contribution to an away-from-oil policy to investigate also the introduction of nuclear energy in the heat-intensive processes of coal gasiŒcation. The utilization of nuclear primary energy in these processes represents a signiŒcant contribution to the saving of resources and thus the lowering of speciŒc carbon emissions to the environment.