Measuring Exposure to Workplace Bullying
During the last 20 years, workplace bullying has been measured and assessed in a range of different studies in order to investigate issues such as the nature, frequency, antecedents, and outcomes of the phenomenon (cf. Einarsen et al., 2003b; Rayner, Hoel, and Cooper, 2002). Despite all this attention on the phenomenon in itself, little is known about how the use of different measurement and estimation methods infl uences the fi ndings on workplace bullying. Keashly and Harvey (2005) even claim the fi eld has been hurried by a desire to discover such substantive issues as nature and phenomenology at the expense of construct research and research on methodological issues. As a consequence of insuffi cient research on the development of psychometrically sound measures of workplace bullying, there are reasons to believe that the measurement of the phenomenon has not been as rigorous as one would hope.