By-Products and Waste
POULTRY by-products include the remaining material after the edible meat has been sold. By-products include the offal, bone, blood, viscera, heads, feet and feathers. Today, most of the meat remaining on the bones, after the conventional hand deboning operation, is harvested by mechanical deboners, as described in Chapter 7. Two to three decades ago, the equipment was not available and most of this meat was not harvested; however, today, mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) is an important commodity item around the world. The MDPM is used in the manufacturing of emulsion-type meat products (e.g., frankfurters) and can also be used in smaller proportions in ground meat products (e.g., sausages). Underutilized parts such as feet and heads, which used to be discarded in Europe and North America, are now receiving more attention. New markets are being developed and, often, such parts are frozen and sent across the ocean to markets where they can be sold for a marginal profit.