chapter  13
30 Pages

13Zeolites and Mesoporous Aluminosilicates as Solid Acid Catalysts: Fundamentals and Future Challenges

ByAna Primo, Avelino Corma, Hermenegildo García

Heterogeneous catalysis is behind 85% of all industrial chemical processes.1 Particularly,thehighmaturityandextraordinaryef„ciencyofpetrochemistryrelyontheuseofsolidcatalysts.2 The paradigmatic examples of successfulheterogeneouscatalystsarezeolitesandmaterialsderivedtherefrom.3 Aswidelyrecognized,thedevelopmentofzeolitesaslarge-scalecatalysts

CONTENTS

13.1Introduction ..............................................................................................449 13.2Green Chemistry and Acid Catalysts ................................................... 451 13.3 Structure of Zeolites ................................................................................453 13.4 Mesoporous Aluminosilicates ...............................................................454 13.5 Nature of Acid Sites in Zeolites and Mesoporous

Aluminosilicates ..................................................................................... 457 13.6Lewis Acid Sites ....................................................................................... 459 13.7 Experimental Techniques to Measure Acidity in Solids ....................460 13.8 In“uence of the Crystal Structure on the Acid Strength ................... 461 13.9 Examples of Reactions Catalyzed by Solid Acids ...............................463 13.10Product Distribution of the α-Bromopropiophenone Cyclic

Ethylene Acetal as a Test Reaction to Assess Brönsted and Lewis Acidity in Zeolites ........................................................................463

13.11 In“uence of the Acid Strength on the Catalytic Activity of Acid Zeolites .............................................................................................465

13.12Friedel-Crafts Hydroxyalkylation of Arenes by Carbonylic Compounds ..............................................................................................468

13.13 Conclusions and Future Trends ............................................................. 472 References ............................................................................................................. 473

inpetrochemistryhasbeenoneofthemajorachievementsinthechemistry ofthetwentiethcentury.4 Scheme 13.1 shows the diagram of “uid catalytic crackingthatiscurrentlythemostimportantprocessbasedonacidzeolites as catalysts.