chapter  3
34 Pages

3Nanoscale Microscopies

ByAnthony A.G. Tomlinson

The term “microscopy” immediately brings to our mind the optical or electron  microscope.Theformer,theoldesttypeofmicroscope,allows magni„cationsupto×10,000,usingglasslenses,whilethelatter,using magnetic„eldsofspecialcoilstofocuselectrons,allowsmagni„cationsup to×1,000,000.Intheearly1980s,themicroscopeevolutiongaverisetothe

CONTENTS

3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 95 3.2 Fundamentals ............................................................................................... 96

3.2.1Electron Microscopy ........................................................................ 96 3.2.1.1Electron Optics: The Basics .............................................. 97

3.2.2 High-Resolution TEM ................................................................... 104 3.2.2.1 Noise Filtering ................................................................. 107 3.2.2.2 Variants ............................................................................. 108

3.2.3Image Processing and Analysis ................................................... 109 3.2.4Scanning Probe Microscopies ...................................................... 109

3.2.4.1 Atomic Force Microscopy .............................................. 112 3.2.4.2 Confocal Microscopy (LSCM-Laser Scanning

Confocal Microscopy) ..................................................... 115 3.3Selected Examples...................................................................................... 117

3.3.1Environmental TEM of Cu/ZnO Catalysts for MeOH Synthesis .......................................................................................... 117

3.3.2 HRTEM of Chrysotile.................................................................... 118 3.3.2.1 Use of Wiener „lters........................................................ 119

3.3.3Nanostructures of Porous Silicon ................................................ 119 3.4Future Challenges and Expected Breakthroughs ................................. 120

3.4.1 Remote Control Operation ........................................................... 124 3.5 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 125 3.6 Questions on Basic Issues ......................................................................... 125 References ............................................................................................................. 126

atomic force microscope, which is capable of magnifying up to ×1 × 10 in horizontalx-andy-planesandaverticalz-plane(overcomingimagetwodimensionality).Paralleldevelopmentsandsynergiesofinstrumentation, imageprocessingandanalysis(all),tiptechnologies(especiallyAFM),and combinedmicroscopy/spectroscopy(especiallycombiningconfocalmethodologies) have been breakneck since 2000. Consequently, such a short introductioncannotbutbeselective,wehopethatnoinjusticehasbeendoneto anymicroscopy,yetthe“avorandplaceofeachinnanoscienceareapparent.

3.2.1 Electron Microscopy