chapter  10
3 Pages

Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Diagnostic Criteria 0 0 ••••••• 0000

Hearing Loss of Gradual Onset 232 16. Causes of Sudden Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss 233

16.1. Meningitis 235 16.2. Acute Infections 235 16.3. Functional Hearing Loss 236 16.4. Ototoxic Drugs 237 16.5. Multiple Sclerosis 238 16.6. Autoimmune Hearing Loss 238 16.7. Congenital Syphilis 243 16.8. Unknown Causes 243

17. Causes of Sudden Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss 243 17.1. Mumps 245 17.2. Direct Head Trauma and Acoustic Trauma 245 17.3. Meniere's Syndrome 245 17.4. Viral Infections 245 17.5. Rupture of Round-Window Membrane, Oval Window Membrane,

or Inner-Ear Membrane 248 17.6. Vascular Disorders 248 17.7. Following Ear Surgery 249 17.8. Fistula of Oval Window 251 17.9. Following Anesthesia and General Surgery 251

17.10. Acoustic Neuromas 252 17.11. Unknown Causes of Sudden Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss 253

18. Causes of Sensory Hearing Loss 253 18.1. Meniere's Disease 255

18.1.1. Terms and Definition 255 18.1.2. Symptoms and Their Effect on the Patient 255

18.2. Vertigo and Tinnitus 256 18.2.1. Hearing Loss 256 18.2.2. Audiologic Findings 257

18.2.3. Recruitment 257 18.3. Clinical Studies 257

18.3.1. Laboratory Tests 258 18.3.2. Labyrinthine Tests 258

18.4. Treatment 259 18.5. Prolonged Exposures to Intense Noise (Occupational Deafness) 260

18.5.1. Two Components 260 18.5.2. Clinical History and Findings 260

18.6. Temporary Hearing Loss 263 18.7. Acoustic Trauma 264 18.8. Direct Head Trauma 267 18.9. Ototoxic Drugs 272

18.10. Sensory Hearing Loss After Ear Surgery 274 18.10.1. Mastoidectomy 274

18.11. Simple Stapes Mobilization Surgery 282 18.12. Stapedectomy 282

18.12.1. Discrimination 282 18.12.2. Cases of Tympanosclerosis 282

18.13. Early Presbycusis and Genetic Hearing loss 285 18.14. Congenital Defects in the Cochlea 285

19. Causes of Neural Hearing Loss 285 19.1. Acoustic Neuroma 286

19.1.1. Early Symptoms 286 19.1.2. Diagnostic Criteria 286

19.2. Fractured Skull and Acoustic Nerve Injury 288 19.3. Partial Section of the Acoustic Nerve 289 19.3. Virus Infection 289 19.4. Congenital Nerve Deafness 290 19.5. Toxicity and Other Nerve Injury 290

20. Surgery and Sensorineural Hearing Loss 291 20.1. Infection /Fistula 291 20.2. Far-Advanced Otosclerosis 292 20.3. Cranial Irradiation 296 20.4. Animal Models 296 20.5. Research Formats 297 20.6. Human Subjects 297 20.7. Treatment of Brainstem Tumors 302 20.8. Future Research Directions 303 20.9. Summary 304

20.10. Endolymphatic Sac Surgery 304 20.11. Acoustic Neuroma 305 20.12. Cochlear Implant 313

21. Conclusion 316 References 316