chapter  7
36 Pages


ByJames R. Lloyd, Kenneth P. Rodbell

The reliability of an interconnect/insulator system in a multilevel integrated circuit structure is complicated. The small dimensions of contemporary integrated circuits (ICs) and the variety of materials employed means that the reliability of literally billions of circuit elements must be evaluated in terms of a multitude of failure mechanisms. The total wiring length in state-of-the-art ICs (microprocessors) is in the neighborhood of kilometers arranged in up to ten levels of wiring with hundreds of millions of interlevel connections. The reliability is further complicated by the presence of process-induced defects.