chapter  14
18 Pages

Environmental Cues Regulate Virulence and Biofilm Formation

ByJohn L. Pace, Steven M. Frey

Host-Dependent Cue ..................................................................................275 14.3.1 Bile Effects on Other Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Virulence Factors.........................................................................275 14.3.2 Impact of Bile on Lipopolysaccharide Structure,

Outer-Membrane Permeation, and Virulence..............................276 14.3.3 Envrironmental Regulation of Capsule

Formation and Disease ................................................................276 14.4. Effect of Biofilm Formation on Antibiotic Activity...................................277 14.5 Conclusions ................................................................................................278 References..............................................................................................................278

Pathogens encounter numerous environmental stimuli and mount coordinated responses to ensure survival and colonization within the host (1-13). Osmolarity, pH, temperature, anaerobiosis or elevated CO2, and the concentrations of several cations including calcium, magnesium, and iron are important cues (14-21). Hostspecific chemical factors play an additional central role in the regulation of virulence