chapter  2
16 Pages

TLR Ligands in Experimental Settings Their Purity and Specificity

ByMin-Fu Tsan

Since the identification of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by Medzhitov et al.1 in 1997, TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in the innate host defense against invading microorganisms by recognizing conserved motifs of microbial origin, also known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).2,3 Recent reports of endogenous molecules of mammalian origin such as the endogenous ligands of TLRs further expand the potential role of TLRs into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and chronic sterile inflammatory disorders.4-6 However, exactly how 11 members of mammalian TLRs recognize such a diversity of molecular structures is not clear.