chapter  2
Glucose Monitoring
ByCasey W. Pirnstill, Brian Cummins, Gerard L. Coté, Roger J. McNichols
Pages 30

Glucose is one of the most important carbohydrate nutrient sources and is fundamental to almost all biological processes. Quantication of glucose concentration is important in the monitoring and analysis of agricultural products, control and regulation of cell culture, and diagnosis and control of human diseases including diabetes. A wide range of parameters including glucose concentration levels, volume of glucose solution available, and required accuracy exist across these applications. For instance, the sugar concentration in many agricultural products (e.g., fruit juices) is hundreds of grams per liter, while the glucose concentration for an online cell culture system may be in the milligrams per deciliter range. Additionally, the volume, or more importantly for optical approaches the available optical path length, for online process control and agricultural applications can be tens of centimeters, while in vivo, these are typically millimeters to centimeters. Consequently, the glucose monitor sensitivity in vivo needs to be orders of magnitude better than in the agricultural industry. Finally, the challenges associated with the in vivo environment make monitoring more dicult than typical industrial applications because of a range of potential confounders that cannot be controlled. ese include temperature and pH variations, confounding chemical species, pressure changes, and correlated physiological changes.