chapter  8
13 Pages

Techniques to evaluate damage and pain on injection

ByGayle A. Brazeau, Jessica Klapa, Pramod Gupta

BACKGROUND AND OPTIMIZING PARENTERAL FORMULATIONS Injectable products have and will continue to be an important aspect in the medication management of patients for cancer, acute cardiovascular disease, infection, central nervous system disorders, and traumatic injuries. It is often also important for the development of parenteral product formulations for existing oral drugs for use in institutional, long-term, and home health care settings, given many of the chronic conditions may necessitate treatment in these types of facilities. The formulation of injectables can be a challenging project, given the complexity of the formulations from the perspective of optimizing the formulation requirements for the product, the physiological constraints associated with administration of the product, and the therapeutic characteristics of the drug (Fig. 1).