chapter  9
26 Pages

Fermented Milk Products

ByBaltasar Mayo, Mohammed Salim Ammor, Susana Delgado, and Ángel Alegría

Milk is a highly nutritive secretion of mammals that serves to nourish offspring duringthe™rstperiodsoflife.Thehighnutritivenatureofmilkhasencourageditsusefor humanconsumptionfromtheverybeginningofhumansocieties.Itprobablystarted

9.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 263 9.2Fermented Milks ............................................................................................264 9.3Dairy Starter Cultures .................................................................................... 267

9.3.1Primary and Secondary Starters .......................................................268 9.3.2Technological Roles ...........................................................................268 9.3.3Types of Starter Cultures ...................................................................269 9.3.4Speci™c Starter Cultures ...................................................................269 9.3.5Probiotic Cultures .............................................................................. 270

9.4Representative Fermented Milk Types .......................................................... 270 9.4.1Natural Fermented Milks .................................................................. 270 9.4.2Filmjölk and Långl .......................................................................... 273 9.4.3Buttermilk and Cultured Buttermilk ................................................. 273 9.4.4Sour Cream ........................................................................................ 273 9.4.5Yogurt ................................................................................................ 274

9.4.5.1History and Technology ..................................................... 274 9.4.5.2Nutritive Value and Therapeutic Bene™ts .......................... 275 9.4.5.3Yogurt-Related Traditional Products ................................. 276

9.4.6Acidophilus Milk ............................................................................... 276 9.4.7Yakult ................................................................................................. 277 9.4.8Milk Products Fermented with LAB and Yeasts .............................. 277

9.4.8.1Ker .................................................................................... 278 9.4.8.2Koumiss .............................................................................. 281 9.4.8.3Acidophilus Yeast Milk ..................................................... 281 9.4.8.4Viili ..................................................................................... 282

9.5Conclusions .................................................................................................... 282 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................... 283 References ................................................................................................................ 283

when the ™rst animals were domesticated, some 10,000-15,000 years ago, most likelyunderSumerian,Babylonian,Egyptian,orIndiancivilizations,assupportedby archaeologicalevidence.RockdrawingsdiscoveredintheLibyandesert,believedto havebeenmadeabout9000BC,depictcowworshipandcowsbeingmilked.India’s Ayurvedicwritingsdatingbackto6000BCexpoundthevirtuesofregulardairy productconsumptionanditscontributiontoalong,healthylife.Itisapparentfrom writings,drawings,andfriezesfromMesopotamia’sSumerians,datedaround6000 BC,thatagricultureandhusbandrywerehighlydeveloped(RobinsonandTamime 2006).Theactualroleofmilkandmilkproductsinthedietofhumancommunities variesgreatlyindifferentregionsoftheworld(Table9.1).Tropicalcountrieshavenot beentraditionallymilkconsumers,whereasthemoreNorthernregionsoftheworld, Europe(especiallyScandinavia)andNorthAmerica,consumefarmoremilkand milkproducts.Nowadays,cow’smilkiswidelyavailableallovertheworldandisthe basisformostdairyfermentedproducts;thoughtoriginallymilkfromothermammals,suchassheep,goat,camel,mare,buffalo,andyakwasprobablymoreimportant,andstillisincertainregionsofthedevelopingandundevelopedworld.Yak milkanditsfermentedproductsarepopulardairyitemsintheHimalayanregionsof India,Nepal,Bhutan,andChina(Tamang2010).Globalmilkproductioncontinues togrow,inparticular,inthedevelopingmarketswithatendencytowardproductionofmilktypeswithreducedfatcontent(IDF2008).Milkofvariousmammal speciesdiffersinchemicalcomposition,includingsigni™cantdifferencesinparameterssuchastotalsolids,fat,protein,andmineralcontents(Table9.2).Differences inthechemicalandsensorialpropertiesoftherawmaterialareconservedoreven ampli™edinthetransformedproducts,givingrisetoproductswithcharacteristicand distinctiverheologicalandorganolepticalproperties.Besidesmajoritycomponents (proteins,fats,lactose),milkalsocontainsminoritycompounds,suchasvitamins, diverseoligosaccharides,freeaminoacids,assimilablepeptides,andgrowthfactors. Therichnutritivenatureofmilk,togetherwiththefactthatantimicrobialsubstances (suchaslactenins,immunoglobulins,andthelactoperoxidasesystem)arescarceand ratherinef™cient,makesitanexcellentgrowthmediumforthedevelopmentofmany microbialtypes,includingpathogensandspoilagemicroorganisms.Thus,milkis ahighlyperishablefoodstuffthatcannotbestoredforlongperiodswithoutspoiling.Throughtheages,manhas™rstrealizedandthenfosteredchangesoccurring naturallyinmilk,whichpreserveitsnutritivecomponentswhilebeingappealingand attractive for consumption.