chapter  1
40 Pages

Dietary Cultures and Antiquity of Fermented Foods and Beverages

ByJyoti Prakash Tamang, Delwen Samuel

Each and every community has a distinct food culture or dietary culture that symbolizesitsheritageandthesocioculturalaspectsofitsethnicity.Foodpreparedby differentcommunitiesisuniqueanddistinctduetothegeographicallocation,environmentalfactors,foodpreference,andtheavailabilityofplantoranimalsources. Religions,dietarylaws,customarybeliefs,andsocialgroupingsaresomeofthecharacteristicscontributingtothedescriptionofaculture,whileethnicityistheaf™liation witharace,people,orculturalgroup(McWilliams2007).Religionsandbeliefsexert astrongin•uenceondietaryhabits,particularlythroughdietarylawssuchastaboos imposedontheconsumptionofcertainfooditems.Fermentedfoodsandbeverages

1.1 Cultural Foods ....................................................................................................1 1.1.1Hindu Foods ..........................................................................................2 1.1.2Buddhist Foods ......................................................................................2 1.1.3Christian Foods .....................................................................................3 1.1.4Muslim Foods ........................................................................................4

1.2World Dietary Culture .......................................................................................4 1.2.1Use of Hands .........................................................................................5 1.2.2Use of Chopsticks ..................................................................................5 1.2.3Use of Cutlery ........................................................................................6 1.2.4Evolution of Dietary Culture .................................................................6

1.3Antiquity and Cultural Aspects .........................................................................7 1.3.1Fermented Vegetables ............................................................................8 1.3.2Fermented Soybeans and Non-Soybean Legumes .............................. 11 1.3.3Fermented Cereals ............................................................................... 13 1.3.4Fermented Milks ................................................................................. 16 1.3.5Fermented Fish .................................................................................... 18 1.3.6Fermented Meats ................................................................................. 21 1.3.7Fermented Beverages and Alcoholic Drinks ......................................22

1.4Conclusion ........................................................................................................30 References .................................................................................................................. 31

areoneoftheintegralcomponentsofculturalfoods.Someculturalfoodshavebeen mentionedinholybookssuchastheBhagavadGita,theBible,andtheKoran,andas a result, most of the traditional or ethnic foods are in•uenced by religion and taboo.