Thermal Remote Sensing of Urban Areas: Theoretical Backgrounds and Case Studies �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Remote-sensing thermal infrared (TIR) data have been widely used in urban climate and environmental studies (Weng 2009). A series of satellite and airborne sensors have been developed to collect TIR data from the Earth’s surface, such as the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)/Enhanced TM (ETM+), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reection Radiometer (ASTER), TIR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In addition to land-surface temperature (LST) measurements, these TIR sensors may be utilized to obtain emissivity data from different surfaces with varied resolutions and accuracies. Both LST and emissivity data are used in urban studies mainly for analyzing LST patterns and their relationship with surface characteristics, assessing the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, and relating LSTs with surface energy uxes for characterizing landscape properties, patterns, and processes (Quattrochi and Luvall 1999).