Biological Hydrogen Production: Light-Driven Processes
The conventional hydrogen production methods involve fossil fuel reforming. This process usually generates large amounts of CO2. Alternative methods of hydrogen generation include electrolysis of water, biophotolysis, and biological production from organic waste materials. In biological hydrogen production, bacteria or microalgae are used to process the organic material through metabolic action and produce hydrogen. Biological hydrogen production has two main advantages over the conventional methods: it generates less greenhouse gases and treats wastes rich in organics (e.g., biomass residues and domestic or food industry wastewaters), thus reducing their negative impact on the environment.