chapter  15
26 Pages

Overview of Hydrogen Storage, Transportation, Handling, and Distribution

ByNed T. Stetson, Robert C. Bowman Jr., and Gregory L. Olson

As hydrogen nds increasing use in emerging applications, the need for improved storage methods is becoming more important. Hydrogen has a normal boiling temperature of about 20 K and a critical temperature of approximately 33 K, above which a liquid cannot be formed through the application of pressure. It is therefore a gas at essentially all normal use and storage temperatures. Hydrogen is the lightest of all elements, and since it behaves as an ideal gas close to ambient temperatures (∼300 K) and pressure conditions, it has a very low normal density of 0.09 g/L (or 11 L/g) at 288 K and 0.1 MPa. To put this density in perspective, with a lower heating value of about 120 kJ/g, the normal energy density of hydrogen is 10 kJ/L. While gasoline has a specic energy of only about 42 kJ/g, its energy density is 32,000 kJ/L [1] and thus has an energy density about 3,200 times greater than normal hydrogen gas.