chapter  18
10 Pages

Texture Analysis

BySHAI BARBUT

Contents 18.1 Background .................................................................................................................375 18.2 Shear Test .................................................................................................................... 377 18.3 Penetration ....................................................................................................................379 18.4 Single Compression and Texture Profi le Analyses .........................................................379 18.5 Tension .........................................................................................................................381 18.6 Torsion ..........................................................................................................................381 18.7 Small Deformation ...................................................................................................... 382 18.8 Other Noncontact Methods ......................................................................................... 382 References ............................................................................................................................... 383

18.1 Background Studying and evaluating the textural parameters of meat products is an essential part of being able to off er consumers high quality and consistent products. A whole muscle product, such as a beefsteak, is unacceptable if it is too tough to chew due to high levels of connective tissue. On the other hand, if the meat does not have enough connective tissue (e.g., turkey breast from heavy toms), it would be too mushy and could fall apart. Such textural parameters can be the result of numerous factors (e.g., breed and age of the animal, stress prior to slaughter, chilling, and cooking methods). Th erefore, studying and understanding factors contributing to the texture of meat products is of great interest to breeders, farmers, the meat industry, and obviously the consumer. Overall, meat textural parameters can be measured by diff erent tests, which usually are classifi ed as large and small deformation tests. Th e large deformation tests, which are more

common, usually include shear, penetration, compression, tension, and torsion (Figure 18.1). Th e small deformation tests (i.e., nondestructive testing) are used more for research purposes and mainly include dynamic scanning rigidity monitoring, using a low-strain or a low-stress rheometer. Th e small deformation tests are mostly used for monitoring gelation processes (e.g., heating of meat proteins and cooling of gelatin) and interactions among diff erent meat and nonmeat gelling components.