chapter  27
18 Pages

Detection of Adulterations: Identifi cation of Animal Species

ByJOHANNES ARJEN LENSTRA

Contents 27.1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 602 27.2 Alternatives to Polymerase Chain Reaction .................................................................. 602 27.3 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methods .................................................................................. 602

27.3.1 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Extraction ................................................................. 602 27.3.2 Polymerase Chain Reaction ........................................................................... 603

27.3.2.1 Design of Polymerase Chain Reaction .......................................... 603 27.3.2.2 Universal Primers. ......................................................................... 603 27.3.2.3 Determination of Polymerase Chain Reaction Products ............... 604 27.3.2.4 Species-Specifi c Amplifi cation....................................................... 606 27.3.2.5 Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction .......................................... 606 27.3.2.6 Fingerprinting ............................................................................... 606 27.3.2.7 Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction ......................................... 607

27.4 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................610 Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................................611 References ................................................................................................................................611

27.1 Introduction Species substitution during food production results from economic fraud or negligence. It may not only lead to unwanted disrespect of religious rules, but can also have harmful health eff ects. For these reasons several methods have been developed for the identifi cation of the species origin of meat samples. In addition, the same methodology can be applied to the control of poaching and illegal trade in animal products.